House of Representatives
10 November 1936

14th Parliament · 1st Session

Mr. Speaker (Hon. G. J. Bell) took the chair at 3 p.m. and read prayers.

page 1622



Prime Minister · Wilmot · UAP

by leave - When honorable members’ of this House on the 15th October last recorded their regret at the death of the honorable member for Kennedy (Mr Riordan) they little thought that within so short a period as has since elapsed they would be called upon to perform a similar sad duty in the case of another fellow member. We are met this after- noon to express our very deep regret at the death of Sir Littleton Groom, the honorable member for Darling Downs.

Sir Littleton Ernest Groom, K.C.M.G., K.C., M.A., LL.M., was elected to the House of Representatives for Darling Downs, Queensland, on the 14th September, 1901, vice the Honorable W. H. Groom deceased, and was re-elected at the general elections in 1903, 1906, 1910, 1913, 1914, 1917, 1919, 1922, 1925 and 1928 (unopposed).

The deceased gentleman was a member of the Royal Commission on the Bonuses for Manufactures Bill, 1903, the Select

Committee on Electoral Act administration, 1904, and the Royal Commission on the Navigation Bill, 1904-6. He was Minister for Home Affairs from July 1905, to October, 1906; AttorneyGeneral from October, 1906, to November, 1908; Minister for External Affaire from June, 1909, to April, 1910 ; Minister for Trade and Customs from June, 1913, to September, 1914; Honorary Minister from February to November, 1917 ; Vice-President of the Executive Council from November, 1917, to March, 1918; Minister for Works and Railways from March, 1918, to December, 1921: Acting Attorney-General from. April, 1918, to August, 1919, and AttorneyGeneral from December, 1921, toDcember, 1925 - when he resigned the portfolio. He was also Minister for Trade and Customs, and Minister for Health from the 26th May to the 13th June, 1924. He was Senior Delegate for the Commonwealth at the League of Nations in 1924, and Chairman of the First Committee of the Fifth Assembly. The honour of being made a Knight Commander of Saint Michael and Saint George was conferred on him in January, 1924. He was Speaker of the House of Representatives from the 13th January, 1926, to the expiration of the eleventh Parliament, but was defeated at the general elections of 1929, securing re-election at the general elections of 1931 and 1934. He was Chairman of the Bankruptcy Legislation Committee, 1932-1936.

The death of Sir Littleton Groom, Mr. Speaker, removes from among us still another of that already small band of pioneers, who played a part in the establishment of the ‘ Commonwealth and, someof them, an important part in the Parliament created by the federation. His life was an eminently unselfish one; unselfish, because he assuredly would have advanced to a very high estate in private life had he devoted his exceptional talents and ability to his own service rather than to the service of his fellow citizens of this Commonwealth. In latter years he took perhaps a less considerable part than distinguished his earlier activities, in the hurly-burly of politics. He had come to occupy somewhat the position of an Elder Statesman whose advice was valu-

*Death of Honorable* [10 November, 1936.] **Sir Littleton** *Groom.* 1623 able because it was based on such a long and varied experience. But even in those latter times he was always ready to make valuable contributions to debates on important questions in this House. One of the most poignant features of his passing is related to his most recent activities. As the outline of his record indicates, he was keenly interested in bankruptcy legislation; and in going through his papers, Lady Groom found that he had carefully prepared the whole of the matter that he needed to enable him to participate actively in the discussion of projected legislation on the subject - a clear indication of his continued assiduity and interest in the work of this House to the very close of his career. In earlier times he took a very active part in the politics of this country. His ministerial record extended over a period of twenty years, and terminated in 1925. AsI have shown, he held numerous portfolios; and in discharging the duties associated with them he gave evidence of very great ability. His fine legal brain has left its imprint upon the statutes of this country. He was never a servile follower of governments or parties, never merely a political party-back. Hebrought a deep conscientiousness to bear upon the various matters that had to be dealt with by himself and the Parliament generally. I am perfectly sure that he made no statement in this House without having prepared it well. His work was characterized by a broad national outlook; he definitely and determinedly avoided anything in the nature of parochialism. The vision of a great Australian nation he kept prominently in mind throughout the whole of his political career - this he shared with the founders of this Great Australian Commonwealth - yet to the consideration of individual propositions he could bring to bear a spirit of detachment and impartiality. He preferred always the longer to the shorter view. In his private life he was deeply and practically religious, and it can assuredly he said of him that he was a Christian gentleman. Although he was a devoted and loyal son of his own church, yet at the same time in his rela tions with and in his general attitude towards the members of other faiths, he was tolerant, generous and charitable. I have not the slightest doubt that he entertained no unkind thoughts of his political opponents. Even when, on one occasion, in the heat of political controversy, he severed an old political allegiance, he never stooped to personal vituperation or bitterness. In the domestic sphere, his life was so happily circumstanced that he set a shining example to all. The happiness and love that permeated his family circle will make harder to hear the separation caused by his death. Our deepest sympathy will go out to Lady Groom and their daughter in the great sorrow that has come upon them, and that sympathy will also be felt by the whole of the Australian people. **Sir Littleton** Groom loved Australia, and helped in a material degree to shape its destiny. He loved this national capital, Canberra, and both the Commonwealth and its capital have derived great benefit from the services which he renderedto them. His remains will rest in the national capital in the churchyard of St. John's which itself was very near to his heart. Had he been given the choice, I am sure that he would not have chosen otherwise. Australia has lost a fine Australian. I move - >This this House expresses its profound regret at the death of the Honorable **Sir Littleton** Ernest Groom, K.C.M.G., K.C, member for Darling Downs, and a former Commonwealth Minister of State and Speaker of the House of Representatives, places on record its appreciation of his outstanding public services to Australia, and tenders to his widow and daughter its deep sympathy in their bereavement. {: #subdebate-0-0-s1 .speaker-009FQ} ##### Mr CURTIN:
Fremantle -- With feelings akin to emotion, and deeply regretting the passing of a very great, a very distinguished and a very gracious Australian, I second the motion that has been moved by the right honorable the Prime Minister **(Mr. Lyons).** **Sir Littleton** Groom belongs to the his tory of this federation and this Parliament. His father before him was a member of it, and father and son shared the unique distinction of having been members of the first Commonwealth Parliament. **Sir Littleton** Groom became the member for Darling Downs as the result of the regretted death of his father, and he undoubtedly inherited that deep sense of the importance of public service which marked the career of his parent who, as far back as 1862, entered *the* Parliament of Queensland and continued to be a member of it until the foundation of this Commonwealth. It is a curious and yet not altogether extraordinary fact that the father and the son should each have lived to preside over a parliament, the father having been a Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland, and the son, **Sir Littleton** Groom, a Speaker of this House. **Sir Littleton** Groom's father had the honour of moving the motion for the adoption of the Address-in-Reply on the first occasion that such a motion was moved in the Commonwealth Parliament. I have no doubt that, with such an example before him, **Sir Littleton** Groom strove - how successfully we know - to comport himself in a way which would maintain the great family tradition, and, at the same time, in his own work, enable him also to play a great and conspicuous part in the service of this country. The Opposition desire to associate themselves in all earnestness with the expressions of regret which the Prime Minister has voiced. No honorable member on this side of the House has other than the most human sense of kinship with Lady Groom in this time of her sorrow. We never heard **Sir Littleton** Groom utter a bitter word in controversy in support of his own case, or in opposition to anything my colleagues or I might have said from time to time. On those privileged occasions when we were admitted to lis private conversation I never heard, and I do not think that any honorable member ever heard. **Sir Littleton** Groom *say* an unkind word about a fellow member. He was, indeed, a gentle man, full of kindly consideration, animated by a sense of virtue, a believer in the good because it was good, and an upholder of those institutions and principles which he felt were indispensable to the welfare of Australia. Personally, I regret that a man who belonged so much to the historical side of federation should have passed from us, but we can be proud, indeed, that Australia is capable of contributing to this Parliament men of such high, qualities, and with such a noble conception of public duty. We express to Lady Groom and to her daughter our deepest sympathy in the irreparable loss they have sustained, and we hope that, in days to come, there will be some comfort for them in the knowledge that they have been part of the life of a great son of a great country. {: #subdebate-0-0-s2 .speaker-DQC} ##### Mr HUGHES:
Minister for Repatriation and Minister for Health · North Sydney · UAP -- I support the motion, and desire to associate myself with the Prime Minister **(Mr. Lyons)** and the Leader of the Opposition **(Mr. Curtin)** in expressing deep regret at the death of **Sir Little** ton Groom, and in extending to his sorrowing widow and family most sincere and heartfelt sympathy in their sad bereavement. Death ha3 been of late very busy amongst us; these last few weeks it has laid it3 icy fingers on two of our members, both of whom were respected and held in high regard by us all. Death is no respecter of persons, nor, indeed, of parties; and they who were in life divided by social and political differences, lie now united in death. **Sir Littleton** Groom, whose death we mourn to-day, was my friend. I knew him well, and T speak of him here as I knew him in public and private life. He was an upright and honorable man, " a very perfect gentle knight ", a man without guile, who never stooped to intrigue, nor attempted to deceive; and he was the very soul of honour and of truth. *A* devout Christian, for him religion was something more than a creed, it, was a way of life, and with firm unfaltering tread he walked the narrow way, guided in all that he did in public or private by those eternal truths to which Christianity owes its abounding vitality, and through which it makes its universal appeal. Upon these he patterned his life, devoting it to public service and the welfare of his fellow men. He went about doing good. And this he did - not in fits and starts, as do men who seek to make atonement by occasional good deeds, for many ill-deeds done - but as steadily as the beat of his own generous heart, for the desire to do good to others was woven into the fabric of his daily life. His last thoughts were for others. On the day before he died, when I sat at his bedside, he talked very little about himself, although he had been, and still was, suffering greatly, but spoke at length about the widow of a former member of this House, who was in sad need of help. He was indeed a man upon whose tomb should be inscribed " Here lies one who loved his fellow men for of all his fine qualities this one stands out, and moat fitly epitomizes his character. He never spoke ill of others; in all the years I knew him I never heard him, either in public speech or private conversation, say an unkind word of anybody. **His** manner, friendly and open, invited men to seek his advice and aid, and none who came to him went empty away. His temper was equable, bis disposition mild. I never saw him angry. Amidst the most exciting scenes in this chamber he preserved an unruffled calm. Claiming full freedom of speech for himself, he conceded the same right to those who differed from him. In debate he was courteous and conciliatory, he sought to persuade, to convert by argument. He never descended to personalities, nor sought to put an opponent to confusion by ridicule, or overwhelm him by vituperation. He made no enemies, for his speech and manner disarmed enmity. In public and private his life was exemplary, but he was no Pharisee, smugly exulting in his own righteousness and condemning men's morals or conduct. He was a very human, kind and tolerant man. In politics he was forbearing and tolerant, always ready to listen to the views of other men, and on minor points anxious to find a *via media,* but I have never known a man who stood more steadfast on great principles. Upon these he dared at all times to risk all. Throughout his career he showed a quiet but steady courage that nothing could shake, and this was proved when he chose a course that he knew gravely imperilled both his tenure of the highest office this Parliament can bestow on any of its members and his seat in this chamber. **Sir Littleton** Groom first came into Parliament upon the death of his father, who, after a distinguished career in the State Legislature of Queensland, had been chosen as one of the original members of this chamber. In the very earliest days of his parliamentary life we were thrown closely together, and as time passed, acquaintance ripened into & friendship which the years strengthened. Although for many years we were in different parties, we found ourselves in the early days of federation sitting side by side in the divisions on those great measures that laid deeply and well the foundations on which the superstructure of Commonwealth legislation rests to-day. **Sir Littleton** Groom was a democrat, and from his adherence to the principles of democracy he never wavered, even when his party turned from them. The first Labour Government in this country owed its accession to office to the support of a band of Liberal democrats amongst whom he, whose death we mourn to-day, was one of the most stalwart, and the most steadfast. In these days there is much talk of parties of the right, and parties of the left. Our dear dead friend and colleague belonged to neither, but walked with even tread in the middle of the road. But always he stood boldly for the rights and privileges of the great masses of the people. In all the years we have sat together in this Parliament I have never known him to cast a vote for reaction, or against true democratic principles. Many times when, at the insistent summons of the division bell, I stood by the door of the chamber uncertain how parties had aligned themselves, I have looked along the crowded benches, and, seeing my friend, have seated myself beside him, assured that where he was, I might fitly be. He had' had a distinguished academia career. He was a deep student, a sound lawyer, and an acknowledged authority on constitutional law. He was a man of fine intellect, clear vision, ripe judg'ment, a capable administrator, and was possessed of unwearying industry. For 35 years he filled a leading place in the political life of the Commonwealth. He held many high and responsible positions, and discharged the duties of all with distinction. For many yeaTS it was my privilege to be associated with him in the government of the Commonwealth. During the greatest crisis in its history he was my colleague, one of my most trusted and valued advisers. A more loyal colleague, or more helpful adviser, no man ever had. He was a great parliamentarian; no man had a more profound knowledge of the rules of debate than he, and ho brought to the discussion of every measure before this chamber, the fruits of wide reading and careful study. He was in the direct line of descent from those distinguished men to whom had been entrusted the affairs of the Commonwealth during its early years. He had been the follower of Barton, the colleague of Deakin and Forrest, and a fellowmember of Reid, Kingston, Lyne, Turner, Braddon, and many others of whose very names, the great majority of honorable members have never heard. He had inherited the great traditions which, they fead so steadfastly upheld, and had acquired from them, and in the same school, that mastery of the art of dialectics that lent to his lightest contributions to debate, distinction and dignity. To one who, like myself, had known, and for long years had been - although not of their party - a fellowmember of these great men, **Sir Littleton's** speeches made a deep appeal, and conjured up visions of a vanished past with which he was indeed the last remaining link. When he took part in discussions on matters of major importance, his dignified hearing, his measured periods, his orderly marshalling of facts, his arguments logical and convincing awoke in me vivid memories dulled by the fleeting years. And sometimes as I listened to his voice, time seemed to turn hack, and the shadowy figures of those long since gone from amongst us again sat in their accustomed places. But the crystal has been shattered, the wizard has laid down his wand, the last of the old Liberals, the follower of Barton, of Deakin, and the rest, has gone. That voice that bridged the years is silent in death. That figure, so familiar, quiet, unassuming, full of human kindness, upon whom our eyes have rested so long, has joined the shades. My friend, the friend of all of us, has gone, and we shall see him no more! He has gone, leaving us sad and sorrowful, and Ins widow desolate and forlorn, mourning her irreparable loss. {: #subdebate-0-0-s3 .speaker-F4U} ##### Mr FORDE:
Capricornia -- I deeply deplore the passing of **Sir Littleton** Groom. He was a good living man with true Christian ideals and was a fine example to the manhood of Australia. He was a great student and a tireless worker. He had a wide knowledge of constitution law and parliamentary practice, and an extensive acquaintance with the world's best literature. A man of culture and learning, he appreciated to the fullest degree the work3 of our Australian poets and prose writers. It could be truly said that his name was a household word throughout Australia, but particularly throughout Queensland. He belonged to a family widely renowned for its great public service to the Australian community over a period of 75 years. For three-quarters of a century the people of Darling Downs have had the unique privilege of voting for a member of the Groom family in State and Federal politics. There are not many instances in Australian history of. political service being hereditary, hut the Groom family provides one such. The late **Mr. William** Henry Groom, the father of **Sir Littleton** Groom, was elected first mayor of Toowoomba in 1860, and he became the member for Toowoomba in the first Parliament of Queensland in 1863 and represented the constituency without a break until he was elected to the first House of Representatives in 1901. He died a few months afterwards and was succeeded by his illustrious son, then **Mr. Littleton** Groom. The father represented the Toowoomba electorate for 40 years in the State Parliament and the son represented the Toowoomba district in the Commonwealth Parliament for 35 years. That is a record of which .any family might reasonably feel proud. The work of **Sir Littleton** Groom was not limited to politics, for he took a leading part in the synods of the Anglican Church and in many educational and progressive movements in his own city and throughout Australia. He was broad and tolerant in his outlook, dignified and courteous in his manner, and wide and charitable in his human sympathies. To him the honour of parliament was in the nature of a personal possession. The Commonwealth Parliament can ill alford to lose men with such vast experience, great learning and high ideals as those of **Sir Littleton** Groom. On many occasions he indicated to us how views could be stated forcibly but without giving person al offence to any one. The very high standing which he enjoyed in the public life of Australia will, be a source of inspiration to every generation and . an indication to us of what a public man should be. Although he has gone from among ns, hia memory will be cherished by all who knew him. Let us hope that rising generations of Australians will be greatly improved in mind and body by endeavouring to emulate the great public service which he gave to his country. *l$o* greater tribute could be paid to the honour, integrity and fairness of any statesman or politician. Speaking as a representative of Queensland, I wish to say that it was always a pleasure to work with **Sir Littleton** Groom in matters that transcended the realm of party politics. In political campaigns I always found him to be fair and honorable to his opponents. I deeply sympathize with his widow and daughter for they have lost a devoted husband and father. Lady Groom had shared with her husband the triumphs of his political life and was always a great consolation to him in any temporary defeat. It will, I hope, be some consolation to her now to realize that her sorrow is shared by thousands of people throughout Australia who appreciated her husband as a great Australian who had given many years of unselfish public service to this country during his distinguished and honorable public career. {: #subdebate-0-0-s4 .speaker-C7E} ##### Dr EARLE PAGE:
Minister for Commerce · Cowper · CP -- I associate my colleagues of the Country party and myself with the resolution of sympathy moved by the Prime Minister **(Mr. Lyons)** on the passing of a great, lovable and gentle Australian. I was privileged to know **Sir Littleton** Groom as a colleague in this chamber, and was associated with him in the same Cabinet, I also had the honour to sit under him while he was the presiding officer of this House. In all these capacities I found him to be unfailingly wise, courteous, kind and considerate. It is probable that he occupied more political offices and held more portfolios than any other member of the Federal Parliament. He acted always according to his conscience, and was of such a disposition as never wittingly to do harm to any one. He had an immense store of political knowledge and experience, upon which he was always ready to draw for the benefit of his less experienced fellow members. By reason of the fact that he had been associated with the Commonwealth Parliament in what might be called the formative period of its legislative work, lie was always able to outline motives that lay behind various legislative enactments of earlier days. In fact, he was probably better equipped to do this than any other honorable member. He was privileged to bear a family name which carried long traditions of public service. It must be unique in the political history of Australia for members of the same family to have represented the same constituency for about three-quarters of a century. He was fortunate in that he had a helpmeet who, by her grace, dignity and courtesy, endeared herself to all who knew her, and this made **Sir Littleton's** own political path easier. It is appropriate that he should be buried in the national capital, very near to the national Parliament House, for he did a great deal to assist in the development of the capital. Almost his last speech in this chamber indicated his intense desire that the capital should grow and develop to its proper destiny. {: #subdebate-0-0-s5 .speaker-JWT} ##### Mr FRANCIS:
Moreton -- It is with deep stress of spirit that I rise to support the motion moved by the Prime Minister **(Mr. Lyons).** The late **Sir Littleton** Groom was a very sincere friend of mine, and in the early years of my membership of this Parliament he was an invaluable colleague to me. The electorate which I have the honour to represent adjoins the electorate of Darling Downs, and on many occasions I had the privilege of campaigning with him in his own electorate and also in mine, and I wai able to see how very truly his constituents loved him. As has been said already, the name of Groom is a household word throughout Queensland, and *ia* the electorate of Darling Downs all sections of the people loved and admired him. **Sir Littleton** Groom lived a life of great public service from his very earliest days. As soon as he was able to do so, he took an active part in public affairs, and ever since has been associated with public life, at first in Queensland and subsequently in the Commonwealth, particularly as a member of this Parliament. It may be said of him that he gave his whole life to the service of the nation, and I am sure that the nation is definitely better for it. He was a great Australian, and stood definitely for every effort to increase the prestige of the national Parliament and to develop a true spirit in relation to the national capital. When I paid my first visit to the national capital in 1923, I was accompanied by **Sir Littleton** Groom. I was amazed, then, at his enthusiasm for the capital and at the immense wealth of his information about it, and I know that even since that time his love for Canberra deepened. As the right honorable member for Cowper **(Dr. Earle Page)** said a moment ago, the purpose of almost the last speech **Sir Littleton** Groom delivered in this chamber was to urge the development and expansion of the national capital, according to the plan originally made. **Sir Littleton** Groom was a man of great culture, marked ability, sound judgment and true courage and determination. He was also a man of remarkable industry. Invariably he was courteous and kindly in his disposition, which made him such a valuable friend. He was a fine Christian gentleman who was respected and admired by every section of the community. His memory will always be associated with the development of the federation and the establishment of the national capital, as the name of his father will always be associated with the development of Queensland. I convey my very sincere sympathy to Lady Groom and her daughter in their very sad bereavement. ' {: #subdebate-0-0-s6 .speaker-KIX} ##### Mr HUTCHINSON:
Indi -- The vacant seat beside me is witness of a presence that will never again grace our councils1 - of a voice that will never again be heard in this chamber. **Sir Littleton** Groom will be sorely missed from this House. He always endeavoured to place our debates upon a high plane and to maintain a truly deliberative atmosphere. He had a very high regard for this democratic institution, for its traditions and procedure, and having such a high regard, devolved upon himself the task of ever raising its prestige. It can be said, I think with every truth, that if every .honorable member in this chamber shaped his conduct along the lines of the late honorable member, this Parliament would stand very much higher in the regard of the public than it does to-day. His long association with Parliament, the many high offices he held, and his great learning, made his contributions to our debates of great interest and value to all parties. As a man, his many attributes were apparent. He was first of all a kindly man - I never heard him speak harshly of any of his fellow men - his whole attitude was one of friendliness and of desire to help, while never pressing advice. To sit next to him in this chamber, as I have don, during the life of this Parliament, was an education. He had a high public spirit, and was pleased to do, as indeed he did do, everything that lay in his power ti advance the best interests of the people of this nation, and in that service he laid down his life. It is fitting that his remains should lie in this - the capital city of Australia. One of the founders of Canberra, he always took a most lively interest in Canberra's affairs, and was most spirited in defending this city against adverse criticism. The future of Canberra will, in many ways, be a memorial to the men who fashioned it. Let us, who follow after, make that memorial a worthy one I know that nothing that I can say can alleviate the grief of his wife and relatives. I can only hope that the memory of one who lived uprightly and honestly, who spent his life in the cause of the nation and of his fellows, on whom many honours were deservedly bestowed, and whose name will go down for ever in the history of this country, and the sympathy of his many friends will atone in some small measure for their irreparable loss. *Death of Honorable* [11 November, 1936.] **Sir** *Littleton Groom.* 1629 {: #subdebate-0-0-s7 .speaker-N76} ##### Mr MENZIES:
Attorney- General · Kooyong · UAP .' - I do not desire to stale by repetition any of the tributes so eloquently paid this afternoon to the memory of the late **Sir Littleton** Groom; but I do feel that . I should specifically associate myself with what has been said about one of my most distinguished predecessors in the office of Attorney-General. Reference has been made to the attributes of the lade **Sir** Littleton Groom, his legal scholarship, his wide knowledge of the Constitution, his ripe experience, and his generosity of mind ; and I likewise can speak of them, because, as a newcomer to this Parliament and as one of his successors in the Attorney-Generalship, I was the beneficiary of all those attributes. Nobody could have behaved with greater kindness and greater consideration; nobody could have displayed greater readiness to place at the disposal, not only of myself, but also of the whole Parliament, the great resources that be had of character, knowledge and experience. He struck one who came recently into this Parliament as an old-fashioned man ; even his speech had about it something of the oldfashioned flavour of an earlier parliamentary time, and yet accompanying that rare, elusive quality, was a most modern interest in every problem with which this Parliament had to deal. All his actions, as we have been reminded, were directed by a singularly lofty character and a well-informed mind, and by the highest principles. He was, as the Prime Minister **(Mr. Lyons)** has pointed out, in the best sense of the sometimes overworked expression, a Christian gentleman, living in the closest communion with his charming and gracious wife. No words, I believe, can better sum up his service to Australia than the words of Edmund Burke that he " brought the dispositions that are lovely in private life into the service and conduct of the commonwealth ". Question resolved in the affirmative, honorable members standing in their places. Motion (by **Mr. Lyons)** agreed to - That **Mr. Speaker** be requested to transmit to Lady Groom the foregoing resolution, together with a copy of the speeches delivered thereon. {: .page-start } page 1629 {:#debate-1} ### ADJOURNMENT {: #debate-1-s0 .speaker-F4O} ##### Mr LYONS:
Prime Minis ter · Wilmot · UAP -- As a mark of respect to the memory of the late honorable member, I move - That the House do now adjourn. Question resolved in the affirmative. House adjourned at 3.52 p.m.

Cite as: Australia, House of Representatives, Debates, 10 November 1936, viewed 22 October 2017, <>.